## HSV / NSV Rating of Electric Equipment

You might surprise to hear about HSV & NSV Rating of Electric Equipment. If you ever get a chance to visit a EHV Switchyard, you will notice that HSV / NSV rating is mentioned on every equipment connected to the Switchyard. I was also wondering...

## Instrument Safety Factor of Current Transformer

Instrument Safety Factor Instrument Safety Factor (ISF) is defined as the ratio of CT saturation current to its rated current. Suppose the CT ratio is 2000/1 and the CT gets saturated if there is flow of 10 kA current through its primary, then Instrument Safety...

## Why PT/VT Secondary Terminal should not be Shorted?

Before discussing “Why PT/VT Secondary Terminal should not be Shorted?”, it is good to have a brief idea of Potential Transformers / Voltage Transformers. PTs/VTs are Instrument Transformer used for the purpose of protection and measurement. The construction of PT/VT is same as that of...

## Core Balance Current Transformer

Core Balance Current Transformer or CBCT is a ring type current transformer through center of which a three core cable or three single core cables of three phase system passes. This type of current transformer is normally used for earth fault protection for low and...

## Equal Area Criterion and Out of Step Condition

Equal Area Criterion is the method of studying the Transient Stability of system of two machines or single machine connected to infinite bus. The study of Transient Stability tells us whether or not synchronism is maintained i.e. whether or not load angle δ settles down...

## All Day Efficiency of Distribution Transformer

All Day Efficiency is defined as the ratio of total energy output for 24 hrs i.e. for the whole day to the total energy input for the same day. All Day Efficiency is basically Energy Efficiency of Transformer calculated for a period of 24 hrs....

## Ammeter Shunt –Construction and Calculation

Ammeter Shunt is used for the measurement of heavy current using an Ammeter. Ammeter Shunt is basically a low resistance connected in parallel with the moving coil so that most of the current is bypassed by the Shunt and hence only a small current flows...

## Voltmeter Multiplier – Construction and Calculation

A PMMC Instrument can be used as voltmeter by just connecting a series resistance with the moving coil. This series resistance is called Voltmeter Multiplier. This combination of moving coil and multiplier is connected across the point whose voltage is to be measured. There are...

## Working Principle of Moving Iron Instruments

Moving Iron Instruments are the most common type of ammeter and voltmeter used at power frequencies in laboratories. These instruments are very accurate, cheap and rugged as compared to other AC instruments. Working Principle of Moving Iron Instruments: In Moving Iron Instruments, a plate or...

## Why Moving Iron Instrument Scale is Non-uniform?

The deflection of needle of moving iron instrument is given in terms of rms value of voltage or current. As the angular deflection of Moving Iron Instrument is proportional to square of operating current, therefore the instrument has basically square law response. Due to this...