## Auto Transfer System – Basic Concept

Auto Transfer System (ATS) or Bus Transfer System (BTS) is a scheme adopted in industries to increases the power supply reliability to their auxiliary loads. Auxiliary loads are essential loads for normal plant operation and production. A complete / partial loss of power supply to these loads may result into plant outage and hence production … Read more

## Plant Load Factor and its Calculation

What is Plant Load Factor? Plant Load Factor (PLF) is the ratio of average power generated by the plant to the maximum power that could have been generated for a given time period. Thus mathematically it can be written as, PLF = Pavg / Pmax…………….(1) As it is the ratio of same quantity, hence it … Read more

## Concept of Availability Based Tariff (ABT)

Availability Based Tariff (ABT) is a frequency based pricing scheme adopted in Indian Power Sector to maintain Grid discipline by implementing incentive / disincentive during unscheduled power interchange (UI). This scheme was introduced in the year of 2002. It is imperative here to understand the need for ABT, for better understanding the concept.  Need of … Read more

## Limiting Error and Relative Limiting Error

Limiting Error is defined as the maximum deviation either in positive side or negative side in the measurement by an instrument from the nominal value or true value. Let us assume that the true value or nominal value of a quantity is As and the measured value by the instrument is Aa, then Limiting Error … Read more

## Copper to Aluminium Electrical Joints – Why Important?

Being an Electrical Engineer we may often face situations where copper and aluminium electrical joints are required. Such joints are required in various scenario. For example, in Switchyard the material of buses are of Aluminium whereas that of P1 &P2 connector of CTs are of copper. You may have seen this or can observe when … Read more

## Galvanic Corrosion – Cause, Effect and Prevention

Galvanic Corrosion is a process of corrosion when two different metals are brought in electrical contact and the contact is bridged by a conductive fluid such as sea water, salted water etc. This is also known as Bimetallic Corrosion or dissimilar metal corrosion. How Galvanic Corrosion take Place? Every metal has acquire electrode potential when … Read more

## Calculation of Resonating Inductor for Tan Delta Test Kit?

What is Resonating Inductor? A Resonating Inductor is nothing special but it is just an Inductor having a specified value of Inductance. Resonating word is added here just to give idea of its purpose and working principle. Now you can guess. Obviously this inductor will be used to create a resonant circuit for getting certain … Read more

## Geometrical Mean Radius (GMR) and Inductance

Geometrical Mean Radius GMR is basically the Geometric Mean of distances between the strands of a conductor. It is the fictitious radius of conductor having no internal flux linkage but only external flux linkage. To understand the concept of GMR and its calculation, it is very important to understand the calculation of inductance of Single … Read more

## Inductance of Single Conductor of Transmission Line

Inductance is the property of a conductor due to which it opposes a sudden change in current through it and a basic electrical parameter like resistance and capacitance. Inductance is defined as the total flux linkage per unit current. To analyse the electrical behavior of circuit, it is very important to have knowledge of all … Read more

## Ring Main Unit (RMU) – Introduction

Ring Main Unit,RMU is a compact, enclosed and sealed type of Switchgear used for medium voltage power distribution. It is a complete Switchgear in itself. A complete Switchgear means, assembly of required switching devices, protection device as well as metering device. RMU of different voltage (mostly 12 kV and 24 kV) and current ratings are … Read more