## Double Bus Single Breaker Scheme

Double Bus Single Breaker Scheme is also known as Main cum Transfer Bus Scheme. In this scheme, two bus bars, four Isolators / Disconnect Switch, One Earth Switch and one Circuit Breaker is used in one Bay for switching purpose. What is Bay? You will...

## Penalty Factor – Definition, Formula and Solved Examples

What is Penalty Factor? Penalty Factor in Power System is a factor (greater than unity) by which the incremental cost of power production of plant must be multiplied to accommodate for the transmission losses. It is also defined as the ratio of power generated by...

## Difference between Harmonics and Sub-harmonics

Harmonics in electrical system is the signal having frequency which is integral multiple of fundamental frequency. This means, if the frequency of fundamental component is 50 Hz, then the frequency of harmonics will be 2×50 (=100 Hz), 3×50 (=150 Hz) and so on. If the...

## Power Factor Improvement Principle and Correction Methods

Low power factor is mainly due to the inductive loads. In industries, mostly inductive loads are used like induction motors, lamps etc.for various purposes. These inductive loads take lagging current and hence results in low power factor. Low power factor has many disadvantages. Therefore, power...

## Calculation of Voltage Distribution with Grading Capacitor

Grading capacitor is used in EHV circuit breakers for achieving uniform voltage distribution across the contacts of multi-break circuit breaker. Multi-break circuit breaker here means that a single breaker having more than once interrupter unit. These capacitors are connected in parallel with each of the...

## Triplen Harmonics – Why are they in phase?

Definition: Triplen harmonics are the odd integral multiple of third harmonic wave. If the frequency of third harmonic wave is ω then frequency of triplen harmonic wave will be 3nω, where n = 3,5,9,…These waves posses a special characteristics and hence it becomes important for...

## Causes of Low Power Factor

Low power factor has several disadvantages in power system. The main effect of low power factor is to increase the current and hence increase losses. This reduces overall system efficiency. Low power factor is thus not desirable from economic point of view. Let us first...

## Proximity Effect – Definition, Cause and Affecting Factors

Definition: Proximity Effect is the phenomena of non-uniform current distribution on the surface of adjacent current carrying conductor due to the effect of another current carrying conductor in its proximity. Since in cables, the conductors are very near to each other, this effect is dominant....