Composite Error of CT – Definition, Calculation & Formula

Definition: Composite Error of a Current Transformer (CT) is defined as the rms value of difference between the ideal secondary current and the actual secondary current. It includes ratio error, phase error and the effect of harmonics present in the exciting current. Composite error is used to express the accuracy of protection class CT. You … Read more Composite Error of CT – Definition, Calculation & Formula

Penalty Factor – Definition, Formula and Solved Examples

What is Penalty Factor? Penalty Factor in Power System is a factor (greater than unity) by which the incremental cost of power production of plant must be multiplied to accommodate for the transmission losses. It is also defined as the ratio of power generated by the plant to the actual power demand of the load … Read more Penalty Factor – Definition, Formula and Solved Examples

Difference between Harmonics and Sub-harmonics

Harmonics in electrical system is the signal having frequency which is integral multiple of fundamental frequency. This means, if the frequency of fundamental component is 50 Hz, then the frequency of harmonics will be 2×50 (=100 Hz), 3×50 (=150 Hz) and so on. If the frequency of harmonics is even multiple of fundamental frequency then … Read more Difference between Harmonics and Sub-harmonics

Power Factor Improvement Principle and Correction Methods

Low power factor is mainly due to the inductive loads. In industries, mostly inductive loads are used like induction motors, lamps etc.for various purposes. These inductive loads take lagging current and hence results in low power factor. Low power factor has many disadvantages. Therefore, power factor improvement is necessary to get rid of problems associated … Read more Power Factor Improvement Principle and Correction Methods

Calculation of Voltage Distribution with Grading Capacitor

Grading capacitor is used in EHV circuit breakers for achieving uniform voltage distribution across the contacts of multi-break circuit breaker. Multi-break circuit breaker here means that a single breaker having more than once interrupter unit. These capacitors are connected in parallel with each of the interrupter unit. In this post, we will discuss the effect … Read more Calculation of Voltage Distribution with Grading Capacitor

Triplen Harmonics – Why are they in phase?

Definition: Triplen harmonics are the odd integral multiple of third harmonic wave. If the frequency of third harmonic wave is ω then frequency of triplen harmonic wave will be 3nω, where n = 3,5,9,…These waves posses a special characteristics and hence it becomes important for the study and analysis of power system. The amazing property … Read more Triplen Harmonics – Why are they in phase?