## Voltage Build up in DC Shunt Generator

In this post we will discuss how Voltage is Build up in DC Shunt generator at No Load. Consider a DC Shunt Generator at no load as shown in figure below. The switch in the field circuit is supposed open and the armature of DC Shunt Generator is driven at rated speed. Because of presence … Read more

## Why DC Series Motor should not be Started at No Load?

In this post we will discuss about the Speed Current Characteristics of DC Series Motor. After going through this post ask yourself the answer of the question “Why DC Motor should not be Started at No Load?” I am sure that you will be able to answer. In DC Series Motor the field winding remain … Read more

## Three Point DC Motor Starter

Three Point Starter for DC Motor have three point for electrical connection namely Line (L) to which positive / negative terminal of DC Voltage is connected, Field (F) which is connected to the field winding of DC Motor and Armature which is connected to the Armature of DC Motor. As it is having three points for … Read more

## Insulation Resistance Test and Polarization Index

Megger is an electrical device which is used to measure the Insulation Resistance by performing Insulation Resistance Test (IR Test). Basically Megger injects High DC Voltage across the Insulator and ground due to which leakage current flows through the Insulator to the ground. By measuring this Leakage Current, Megger calculates the Insulation Resistance. Suppose the … Read more

## Effect of Power Swing on Distance Protection

In last post Power Swing, we discussed Power Swing and behavior of machine on Power Swing. Now we will discuss the impact of Power Swing on Distance Relaying. We consider the two machine system connected by Transmission line of Impedance ZL as shown in figure below. For making the calculation easy, assume ER as reference and its angle … Read more

## Power Swing

In last post Load Encroachment on Distance Protection, we observed that low value of Impedance Z arise due to voltage instability or transients associated with electromechanical oscillations of rotors of synchronous machines after a major disturbance like the faults. This can introduce nuisance tripping. Such tripping is known as tripping on Power Swings. In this post … Read more

## Effect of Load Encroachment on Distance Protection

For discussing the effect of Load Encroachment on Distance Protection, we make a steady state model of Transmission Line as shown in figure below. In the figure Vi is Sending End voltage and Vj is Receiving End voltage. Power Pij+jQijis flowing in the direction shown in figure. We know that,   Pij – jQij= VixI … Read more

## Outfeed and Infeed Effect

We will discuss here the Outfeed and Infeed Effect and its implication on Distance protection. Consider the operation of distance relay R1 for a fault F close to remote bus on line BC as shown in the figure below. Therefore fault current will be feed by Source G1, G2 and G3. Therefore, IBF= IAB + … Read more

## Why Zone-1 Setting 80% and Zone-2 150% in Distance Protection?

As discussed in my earlier post on Distance Protection Philosophy, Zone-1 setting is kept at 80% of the total impedance of the Protected Line. So question will come in your smart brain that why 80% even though Zone-1 is meant for primary protection? Zone-1 is meant for protection of the primary line. Typically, it is … Read more

## Distance Protection Philosophy

Distance protection is a non-unit system of protection offering considerable economic and technical advantages. Unlike phase and neutral over current protection, the key advantage of distance protection is that its fault coverage of the protected circuit is independent of source impedance variations. Let us take an example of this to understand how distance protection is … Read more