## Power Flow Equation through an Inductive Load

Equation of power flow through an inductive load provides the relationship between the sending end voltage, receiving end voltage, line parameters viz. inductance and resistance of line and the impedance angle. The equation is general and can be well applied for Synchronous generator,Synchronous Motor and Transmission Line with slight but appropriate changes. In this post … Read more

## Difference between Concentrated and Distributed Winding

The winding used in electrical machine can be broadly classified into two types: Concentrated Winding and Distributed Winding. Concentrated Winding In concentrated type of winding, all the winding turns are wound together in series to form one multi-turn coil. Examples of concentrated winding are field winding for salient pole synchronous machine and DC machine. In … Read more

## Armature Winding and Its Types

Definition of Armature Winding Armature winding in an electrical machine is that winding which carries the load current. In other words, it can also be defined as the winding in which emf is generated due to air gap field flux. It should be noted here that, air gap flux or working flux is produced due … Read more

## Difference between Lap and Wave Winding

The main difference between lap and wave winding is the manner of connecting the armature winding coil end to the commutator segment. In lap winding the top and bottom coil ends are connected to adjacent commutator segment whereas in wave winding, they are bent in opposite direction and connected to commutator segments which are approximately … Read more

## Advantages of Wave Winding Over Lap Winding

Wave winding posses certain advantages over lap winding. The main advantage of wave winding is requirement of lesser amount of conductor and carbon brushes. This is because the number of parallel path in wave winding is always 2, therefore two carbon brushes are only required. A wave winding may be fitted with as many brushes … Read more

## Pitch Factor or Coil Span Factor and Winding Factor

Pitch Factor or Coil Span Factor Pitch Factor or Coil Span Factor is definite as the ratio of emf generated in short pitch coil to the emf generated in full pitch coil. It is denoted by Kp and its value is always less than unity. This factor basically represents the effect of short pitch winding … Read more

## Coil Pitch or Coil Span, Full Pitch, Short Pitch Coil and Chording Angle

Coil Pitch or Coil Span Coil pitch or coil span is defined as the angular distance between the two coil sides of one coil. It is expressed in terms of electrical space degree. Coil pitch is 180 electrical space degree for full pitch coil and less than 180 degree for short pitch coil.  A coil … Read more

## Distribution Factor – Definition, Calculation and Formula

Definition Distribution factor is defined as the ratio of phasor sum of coil emfs to the arithmetic sum of coil emfs. It is also known as Belt or Breadth factor and denoted by kd. In electrical machine, armature winding is distributed in the slots. It is not concentrated in a single slot. Therefore the total … Read more

## Armature Reaction in Alternator or Synchronous Machine

Armature winding in an electrical machine is the winding which carries the load current. Under no-load condition, the armature current is zero. But as the machine is loaded, load current flows through the armature winding and creates magnetic flux. The effect of armature winding mmf or flux on the main working flux created by field … Read more

## Parallel Operation of Three Phase Transformer

Parallel operation of three phase transformer is very common in three phase power generation, transmission and distribution. It is advantageous to use two or more Transformer units in parallel instead of using a single large unit. This offers flexibility for maintenance as well as operation. Advantage of Parallel Operation of Three Phase Transformers It increases … Read more